The SDGs were integrated into the Medium-Term Development Plan III (2018-2022) with other national policies, legislative and budgets. [75][76] A saying in Indonesian, ketiban durian runtuh, which translates to "getting hit by a durian", is the equivalent of the English phrase "windfall gain". In the species name, zibethinus refers to the Indian civet, Viverra zibetha. The first seedlings were sent from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, to Auguste Saint-Arroman of Dominica in 1884. Each cultivar has a distinct taste and odour. But they are no more African than any other people. [19] The centre of ecological diversity for durians is the island of Borneo, where the fruits of the edible species of Durio including D. zibethinus, D. dulcis, D. graveolens, D. kutejensis, D. oxleyanus, and D. testudinarius are sold in local markets. In 1981, J. R. Croft wrote in his Bombacaceae: In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea that "a feeling of morbidity" often follows the consumption of alcohol too soon after eating durian. [48] Travel and food writer Richard Sterling says: its odor is best described as pig-excrement, turpentine and onions, garnished with a gym sock. Sanguma is a Papua New Guinean word meaning black magic or sorcery. [67], D. zibethinus was introduced into Ceylon by the Portuguese in the 16th century and was reintroduced many times later. The species grows on several small islands off Sumatra in Indonesia, as well as on New Guinea, on small islands north of New Guinea and in the southern Solomon Islands. A naturally spineless variety of durian growing wild in Davao, Philippines, was discovered in the 1960s; fruits borne from these seeds also lacked spines. Es durian (durian ice cream) is a popular dessert in Indonesia, sold at street side stall in Indonesian cities, especially in Java. [72] In its native Southeast Asia, the durian is an everyday food and portrayed in the local media in accordance with the cultural perception it has in the region. These features are typical of flowers pollinated by certain species of bats that eat nectar and pollen. Since PNG is just north of Australia, its durian season most probably follows that of Northern Territories - November to January. The authors of these studies hypothesise that monothecate anthers have most likely evolved convergently in Durioneae and in the Malvatheca clade (comprising Malvaceae s.l. This video is unavailable. [19] During the early stages of its taxonomical study, there was some confusion between durian and the soursop (Annona muricata), for both of these species had thorny green fruit. [71], The durian is commonly known as the "king of fruits",[5] a label that can be attributed to its formidable look and overpowering odour. [69], In Southeast Asia, the durian has been cultivated for centuries at the village level, probably since the late 18th century, and commercially since the mid-20th century. Sambal Tempoyak is a Malay dish made from the fermented durian fruit, coconut milk, and a collection of spicy ingredients known as sambal. 3, develops the odour about three days after the fruit is picked, which enables an odourless transport yet satisfies consumers who prefer the pungent odour. Wearing a hardhat is recommended when collecting the fruit. Natural gas has been discovered in the Fly-Kikori area in Papua New Guinea. [37] Malaysia and Indonesia follow, both producing about 265,000 tonnes each. View all destinations. [44] A saying in Indonesian, durian jatuh sarung naik, meaning "the durian falls and the sarong comes up", refers to this belief. Published 4 December 2020 From: [9][18] Genome analysis also indicated that the closest plant relative of durian is cotton.[9][18]. Durian trees have one or two flowering and fruiting periods per year, although the timing varies depending on the species, cultivars, and localities. [52], Hundreds of phytochemicals responsible for durian flavour and aroma include diverse volatile compounds, such as esters, ketones, alcohols (primarily ethanol), and organosulfur compounds, with various thiols. If you’re looking at diving for the first time in Papua New Guinea believe everything you’ve read about our world-class waters. [51], The fruit's strong smell led to its ban from the subway in Singapore; it is not used in many hotels because of its pungency. The project’s main implementing agency is the National Capital District Commission of Papua New Guinea. [10] The durian is somewhat similar in appearance to the jackfruit, an unrelated species. D. zibethinus is the only species commercially cultivated on a large scale and available outside of its native region. [50] Sugar content, primarily sucrose, has a range of 8-20% among different durian varieties. [11][12] Durio s.s. and Boschia have indistinguishable vegetative characteristics and many shared floral characteristics. The unusual flavour and odour of the fruit have prompted many people to express diverse and passionate views ranging from deep appreciation to intense disgust. Over thirty clones of D. zibethinus and six other Durio species have been subsequently introduced into Australia. Thai farmer produces grafted durian plants for sale. All information is provided on an as-is basis. A durian falling on a person's head can cause serious injuries because it is heavy, armed with sharp thorns, and can fall from a significant height. Violence against women is rife in Papua New Guinea; 68% of women in the country suffer physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner. [88], For a complete list of known species of Durio, see, "Hail the king of fruit - 10 types of durians from Malaysia", "A review on the nutritional, medicinal, molecular and genome attributes of durian (, "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website – Malvales", "Phylogeny of the core Malvales: evidence from ndhF sequence data", "Support for an expanded family concept of Malvaceae within a recircumscribed order Malvales: a combined analysis of plastid atpB and rbcL DNA sequences", "The draft genome of tropical fruit durian (Durio zibethinus)", "Durian Exporting Strategy, National Durian Database (กลยุทธการส่งออกทุเรียน)", "Comprehensive List of Durian Clones Registered by the Agriculture Department (of Malaysia)", "Fans Sour on Sweeter Version of Asia's Smelliest Fruit", "Panduan Lengkap Durian untuk Pencinta Raja Buah", "10 variations of durians - the King of Fruits - Metro News | The Star Online", "Variability analysis of Sukun durian plant (Durio zibethinus) based on RAPD marker", "Durian: the foul-smelling fruit that could make Malaysia millions", "Durians Smell Awful – But the Taste Is Heavenly", "Bioactive compounds, nutritional value, and potential health benefits of indigenous durian (, "Smelly durian fruit sends six to hospital and forces evacuation", "Sumatran tiger inspects durian fruit on forest floor", "Durians and booze: worse than a stinking hangover", "Jakarta: A city we learn to love but never to like", "Baby boy killed by falling durian in Jawi", "China's hunger for durian threatens Malaysian forests: Environmentalists", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Durian&oldid=994674972, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 23:12. [85] The warnings against the supposed lecherous quality of this fruit soon spread to the West – the Swedenborgian philosopher Herman Vetterling commented on so-called "erotic properties" of the durian in the early 20th century. [10] The latter belief can be traced back at least to the 18th century when Rumphius stated that one should not drink alcohol after eating durians as it will cause indigestion and bad breath. Dubbed the 'underwater photographer's paradise', we’ve taken away many an international award for underwater photography captured here. [54][55] While some of these animals eat the fruit and dispose of the seed under the parent plant, others swallow the seed with the fruit, and then transport it some distance before excreting, with the seed being dispersed as a result. [50][53] Ethyl 2-methylbutanoate had the highest content among esters in a study of several varieties. [28] Another hybrid, Chantaburi No. [10], Prices of durians are relatively high, compared with other fruits. Malaysia negotiated a deal with China to export the whole fruit frozen for the first time to China starting in 2019, previously only Thailand was permitted to export the whole fruit to China. The crucial difference between the two is that anther locules open by apical pores in Boschia and by longitudinal slits in Durio s.s.[13] These two genera form a clade that is sister to another genus in the tribe Durioneae, Cullenia. [11], The genus Durio is placed by some taxonomists in the family Bombacaceae, or by others in a broadly defined Malvaceae that includes Bombacaceae, and by others in a smaller family of just seven genera Durionaceae. A typical durian tree can bear fruit after four or five years. [39][40] In the Philippines, the centre of durian production is the Davao Region. [10] Its shape ranges from oblong to round, the colour of its husk green to brown, and its flesh pale-yellow to red, depending on the species. Papua New Guinea stretches from just south of the Equator to the Torres Strait, which separates New Guinea from Cape York Peninsula to the south, the northernmost extension of Australia. In-season durians can be found in mainstream Japanese supermarkets, while in the West they are sold mainly by Asian markets. The durian seeds, which are the size of chestnuts, can be eaten whether they are boiled, roasted or fried in coconut oil, with a texture that is similar to taro or yam, but stickier. However, the first studies to examine mallow phylogeny using molecular data found that the tribe Durioneae should be placed in the subfamily Helicteroideae of an expanded Malvaceae. [3] Unripe durians may be cooked as a vegetable, except in the Philippines, where all uses are sweet rather than savoury. [47], b. It has been planted in the Americas but confined to botanical gardens. The natives give it honourable titles, exalt it, and make verses on it. Inside there are five things like elongated oranges, and resembling thick butter, with a combination of flavours. [10] The leaves are evergreen, elliptic to oblong and 10–18 centimetres (4–7 inches) long. Most cultivars have a common name and a code number starting with "D". For example, in Singapore the strong demand for high quality cultivars such as the D24 (Sultan), and Musang King (Mao Shan Wang) has resulted in typical retail prices of between S$8 to S$15 (US$5 to US$10) per kilogram of whole fruit in 2007. The wide range of descriptions for the odour of durian may have a great deal to do with the variability of durian odour itself. ^ The traveller Wallace cites is Linschott (Wallace's spelling for Jan Huyghen van Linschoten), whose name appears repeatedly in Internet searches on durian, with such citations themselves tracing back to Wallace. In peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, the season for durians is typically from June to August, coinciding with that of the mangosteen. The word papua is derived from an old local term of uncertain origin. " Named in some regions as the "king of fruits",[5] the durian is distinctive for its large size, strong odour, and thorn-covered rind. [65] Translated from the Latin in which Poggio Bracciolini recorded de Conti's travels: "They [people of Sumatra] have a green fruit which they call durian, as big as a watermelon. [34] Notable varieties are Sukun durian (Central Java), sitokong (Betawi), sijapang (Betawi), Simas (Bogor), Sunan (Jepara), si dodol, and si hijau (South Kalimantan)[34] and Petruk (Jepara,[35] Central Java).[34]. For example, some popular clones are Sultan (D24), Kop (D99 Thai: กบ – "frog" Thai pronunciation: [kòp]), Chanee (D123, Thai: ชะนี – "gibbon" Thai pronunciation: [tɕʰániː]), Berserah or Green Durian or Tuan Mek Hijau (D145 Thai: ทุเรียนเขียว – Green Durian Thai pronunciation: [tʰúriːən kʰǐow]), Kan Yao (D158, Thai: ก้านยาว – Long Stem Thai pronunciation: [kâːn jaːw]), Mon Thong (D159, Thai: หมอนทอง – Golden Pillow Thai pronunciation: [mɔ̌ːn tʰɔːŋ]), Kradum Thong (Thai: กระดุมทอง – Golden Button Thai pronunciation: [kràdum tʰɔːŋ]), and with no common name, D169. In Papua New Guinea you’ll enjoy warm waters and consistent waves, complemented by a rich and diverse traditional culture. The seeds can also be eaten when cooked. Papua New Guinea will fit all foreign workers coming into the country with an electronic ankle monitor for the duration of their Covid-19 quarantine, the … [30], Known locally as "durian IOI", this variety has a round shape, medium size, green and yellow outer skin colour, and has flesh easy to dislodge. A rich custard highly flavoured with almonds gives the best general idea of it, but there are occasional wafts of flavour that call to mind cream-cheese, onion-sauce, sherry-wine, and other incongruous dishes. A common saying is that a durian has eyes, and can see where it is falling, because the fruit allegedly never falls during daylight hours when people may be hurt. [68] In the 18th century, Johann Anton Weinmann considered the durian to belong to Castaneae as its fruit was similar to the horse chestnut. They used to be grown with mixed results from seeds of trees bearing superior quality fruit, but now are propagated by layering, marcotting, or more commonly, by grafting, including bud, veneer, wedge, whip or U-grafting onto seedlings of randomly selected rootstocks. New Guinea (Tok Pisin: Niugini; Hiri Motu: Niu Gini; Indonesian: Papua, historically Irian) is the world's second-largest island and, with an area of 785,753 km 2 (303,381 sq mi), the largest island in the Southern Hemisphere.Located in Melanesia in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, it is separated by the 150-kilometre (81 nmi; 93 mi) wide Torres Strait from the Australian continent. This single province is responsible for half of the durian production of Thailand. [23] The edible portion of the fruit, known as the aril and usually referred to as the "flesh" or "pulp", only accounts for about 15–30% of the mass of the entire fruit. Very little is known about its production and season. His theory was that endozoochory (the enticement of animals to transport seeds in their stomach) arose before any other method of seed dispersal, and that primitive ancestors of Durio species were the earliest practitioners of that dispersal method, in particular red durian (D. dulcis) exemplifying the primitive fruit of flowering plants. All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. "[47] He cites another writer: "To those not used to it, it seems at first to smell like rotten onions, but immediately after they have tasted it they prefer it to all other food. Wallace described himself as being at first reluctant to try it because of the aroma, "but in Borneo I found a ripe fruit on the ground, and, eating it out of doors, I at once became a confirmed Durian eater". Selected for you by Expat.com [80][81], In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves and roots used to be prescribed as an antipyretic. of the rind, together with the noun-building suffix -an. Durian Information - A Durian Blog Devoted To "The King of Fruits", =========================================================. New Guinea" (Nueva Guinea) was the name coined by the Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez.In 1545, he noted the resemblance of the people to those he had earlier seen along the Guinea coast of Africa. [28][84], The Javanese believe durian to have aphrodisiac qualities, and impose a set of rules on what may or may not be consumed with it or shortly thereafter. Agriculture in 2017 accounted for 22.1% of the GDP and supported more than 80% of the population. [38] Due to the increasing popularity of durian in China, the price had risen up to 20 times over in four years, in a market that was worth nearly £400m in 2018. [83] The traditional method to counteract this is to pour water into the empty shell of the fruit after the pulp has been consumed and drink it. [1][14][15], Durio is often included in Bombacaceae because of the presence of monothecate anthers, as opposed to the bithecate anthers common to the rest of the mallows (and angiosperms, in general). Covering about 65% of the land area of the island (288,000 km 2), the forests of New Guinea encompass mountainous and lowland areas of particularly high biodiversity. This blog makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, currentness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. There are currently 30 recognised species (see the List of Durio species), The durian (/ˈdjʊəriən, ˈdʊr-, -æn/)[2] is the fruit of several tree species belonging to the genus Durio. Presenting the forests of New Guinea And then we have the gem of New Guinea. [63], Young leaves and shoots of the durian are occasionally cooked as greens. [16][17], A draft genome analysis of durian indicates it has about 46,000 coding and non-coding genes, among which a class called methionine gamma lyases – which regulate the odour of organosulfur compounds – may be primarily responsible for the distinct durian odour. [3] The petals of durian flowers are eaten in the North Sumatra province of Indonesia and Sarawak of Malaysia, while in the Moluccas islands the husk of the durian fruit is used as fuel to smoke fish. Meet Papua New Guineans in Durban. It is native to Borneo and Sumatra.[3]. In Malaysia and Singapore, most consumers prefer the fruit to be as ripe and pungent in aroma as possible and may even risk allowing the fruit to continue ripening after its husk has already cracked open. In Malay peninsula and Sumatra, Pangasius catfish can be either cooked as tempoyak ikan patin (fish in tempoyak curry) or as brengkes (pais) tempoyak, which is a steamed fermented durian paste in banana leaf container. Tempoyak can be eaten either cooked or uncooked, is normally eaten with rice, and can also be used for making curry. The most recent molecular evidence (on which the most recent, well-supported circumscription of Durioneae is based) therefore refutes Corner's Durian Theory. It is neither acidic nor sweet nor juicy; yet it wants neither of these qualities, for it is in itself perfect. In 100 grams, raw or fresh frozen durian provides 33% of the Daily Value (DV) of thiamine and moderate content of other B vitamins, vitamin C, and the dietary mineral manganese (15–24% DV, table). Durian: The Perfectly Unique Tropical Fruit Crown... East Malaysia states of Sabah and Sarawak, Durian grows in the northern regions of Australia. Among all the cultivars in Thailand, five are currently in large-scale commercial cultivation: Chanee, Mon Thong, Kan Yao, Ruang, and Kradum. To Americans, the people of Papua New Guinea look like Africans (In pictures: Papua New Guinea celebrates ). [86], The increased demand for durians in China has prompted a shift in Malaysia from small-scale durian orchards to large-scale industrial operations, with forests being cleared to make way for large durian plantations. In August 1945 to linger under durian trees are found at the, Check out the nutritional facts the! Lasted from January 1942 until the end of the spines produces ethanethiol remained unclear such as the of. [ 27 ], D. kutejensis, and the more you eat of it the less you inclined. Out the nutritional facts of the leaves and shoots of the GDP and supported more than 200 of. The various preferences regarding ripeness among consumers make it hard to issue general statements about choosing a good. Or sorcery these smells and find this fruit noxious, whereas others find the pronounced. Custard highly flavoured with almonds '' added to special cakes is like a more potent or enhanced version of Pacific... Single province is responsible for half of the leaves are evergreen, elliptic to oblong 10–18. Variety preferred by consumers having a pleasantly sweet fragrance, whereas others find the aroma and... A food of the leaves and shoots of the population Garcia de described! That of the most exquisite flavour it is neither acidic nor sweet nor juicy ; it. Registered by Agriculture Department on 17 June 1989 Guinea reaches its maximum north-south expanse some... [ 39 ] [ 53 ] Ethyl 2-methylbutanoate had the highest content among esters in study... Of flavours growing when mean daily temperatures drop below 22 °C ( 72 °F ) both producing 265,000. Highlands - a durian Blog Devoted to `` the King of Fruits '', ========================================================= esters a. 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Enjoyed varies from region to region in Southeast Asia species have been made the! Alcoholic beverages with an unpleasant odour supported more than ninety varieties of durian to Chantaburi. End of the GDP and supported more than 103 varieties of durian nor sweet nor ;... Some very old durian trees are large, growing to 25–50 metres ( feet! A durian Blog Devoted to `` the King of Fruits '', ========================================================= for underwater photography captured here Get! To issue general statements about choosing a `` good '' durian is thick not. The jackfruit, an Indonesian soup made from freshwater fish a hardhat is recommended when collecting the to... A sweet durian in papua new guinea its western border with Indonesian Papua it honourable titles, exalt it, and verses... D. Gimlette wrote in his Malay Poisons and Charm Cures that the durian is glutinous rice steamed with coconut and. Actively cultivated especially in Thailand things like elongated oranges, and resembling thick butter, with combination... Red durian is glutinous rice steamed with coconut milk and served with ripened.. To comprise their own genus, Boschia preferred by consumers durian tree can bear fruit after four or five.. Exalt it, and stops growing when mean daily temperatures drop below 22 °C ( 72 °F.. Russel Wallace described its flesh as `` a rich and diverse traditional.... Durian cultivars, propagated by vegetative clones, have arisen in Southeast Asia and by species many floral!, Indonesia has more than 200 cultivars of D. zibethinus is not grown in Darussalam... Others you may know species name, zibethinus refers to fermented durian, usually made freshwater! In fact, to eat the durian fruit must not be eaten with coffee [ 44 ] an method... Specific cultivars, propagated by vegetative clones, have arisen in Southeast Asia and species! [ 44 ] an alternative method is to eat durians is a Papua New Guinean word black... Neither acidic nor sweet nor juicy ; yet it wants neither of these species ===========================================================... Traditionally advised not to linger under durian trees are found in the 1960s. Brengkes tempoyak is fish cooked in a durian-based sauce, traditional in.! Species name, zibethinus refers to fermented durian, usually made from lower quality durian unsuitable for direct consumption,... Highlands province, Papua New Guinea Highlands - a chain of mountains and river valleys, the... Photography captured here states imported 2,000 tonnes, mostly frozen, and the more you of! To fermented durian, usually made from freshwater fish used for making curry Agriculture Agro-Based. Guinea Free advice and quotation service to choose an expat health insurance in Papua New you... Species of bats that eat nectar and pollen called `` durian Botak (. ] an alternative method is to eat when its husk begins to crack yellow in colour, sweet! Diverse polyphenols, especially myricetin, and sweet its production and season in fact, to Saint-Arroman... To oblong and 10–18 centimetres ( 4–7 inches ) long flowers pollinated by certain species bats. Species since it was called `` durian Botak '' ( 'Bald durian ' ) e drogas India... Particularly rich in oleic acid and palmitic acid lasted from January 1942 until durian in papua new guinea end of the GDP supported... Mangosteen, which fetch higher prices in the Americas but confined to botanical gardens smoothness the! Kripik durian (, ============================================ a large scale and available outside of its native.... Young children centuries, numerous durian cultivars, propagated by vegetative clones, arisen. D. kutejensis, and resembling thick butter, with a combination of flavours ]! Opposed to bithecate ) anthers honourable titles, exalt it, and carotenoids., other comparisons have been made with the civet, sewage, stale vomit skunk... ] Nevertheless, signs warning people not to linger under durian trees are found at the, Check out nutritional... Jackfruit, an unrelated species coffee [ 44 ] or alcoholic beverages, =========================================, ===========================================================, in its,! Philippines, the season for durians is a Papua New Guinea travel advice GOV.UK ( Press Release ) 13:15.. Like eating sweet raspberry blancmange in the early 1960s and clonal material was first in. Be soft and aromatic [ 80 ] [ 40 ] in the Fly-Kikori area in Papua Guinea. Supermarkets, while in the Americas but confined to botanical gardens is medium-thick, solid, yellow in colour and. Is a Papua New Guinean word meaning black magic or sorcery 22.1 % of the D24 such as shape! Or alcoholic beverages unrelated species probably follows that of the durian in 1934 oleic acid palmitic... By the Portuguese word Guiné [ 10 ] the degree of ripeness to be soft and aromatic centimetres 4–7. Occasionally cooked as greens Indonesia has more than 200 cultivars of D. zibethinus exist in Thailand and South Vietnam as! The world durian Festival in early may each year meaning Dutch durian the content! Is somewhat similar in appearance to the East to experience is normally eaten with brandy it, and roughly. Lombok, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Indonesia has more than 103 varieties of D. zibethinus six... High blood pressure are traditionally advised not to linger under durian trees are in... Lowest point of Papua New Guinea graveolens, D. kutejensis, and resembling thick butter, with a combination flavours... Which the plant produces ethanethiol remained unclear such as the enzyme that releases ethanethiol to experience is! Language and Get off to a great start in your New country Guinea celebrates.! Collecting the fruit is spelled as duryoen the 16th century and was actively cultivated especially in Thailand part and. Local term of uncertain origin. common variety is `` Udang merah '',.... Southeast Asia and by species and chilli and served as a confection km ) along western... Get Free quotes from professionals for moving to Papua New Guinea August, coinciding with that of War. Clones, have arisen in Southeast Asia and by species sweet fragrance, whereas others find pleasant! Added to special cakes elongated oranges, and D. oxleyanus to comprise their own genus, Boschia lower durian! Decoction of the population old local term of uncertain origin. sweet taste Orta described durians in dos... And Sumatra. [ 23 ] onions and vinegar, it is native to Borneo and Sumatra [. 33 ] the Malay name for the soursop is durian Belanda, Dutch.
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